Plan de diseño participativo para proyecto de vivienda social en la Ciudad de Porvenir, Chile


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Por Felipe Martínez Ríos (*)


Sin duda que la participación ciudadana es un tema en boca de todos y la estrella en la bandera de muchos programas sociales, políticos y el mismo gobierno, sin embargo, en la realidad nos topamos que hay muchas practicas que más que buscar una participación activa y verdadera, solo se conforman con cumplir el Ítem de talleres participativos sin una profundidad o profesionalismo verdadero. Vemos entonces una discordancia entre el discurso y la implementación efectiva de aquellas ideas.

A continuación se relata la resiente experiencia en el desarrollo de un “Plan de diseño Participativo” para el desarrollo de vivienda social en la ciudad de Porvenir, Tierra del fuego. Proceso desarrollado por el equipo del programa Servicio País[1] compuesto por un arquitecto, una psicóloga y una administradora pública.

La ciudad de Porvenir ubicada en la Provincia de Tierra del Fuego, región de Magallanes, está viviendo un proceso de acelerado crecimiento demográfico y urbano, lo que ha provocado un aumento considerable de la demanda habitacional.

El Municipio de la comuna de Porvenir en conjunto con la EGIS Municipal (Entidad de Gestión Inmobiliaria Social) se han comprometido a dar solución a esta problemática y han iniciado la elaboración de un Proyecto de vivienda social llamado “Lomas de Baquedano” que contempla beneficiar a más de 270 familias que postularan al Fondo Solidario de la Vivienda (FSV) del Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo, MINVU, para obtener la casa propia.

El equipo de profesionales del Programa Servicio País , se comprometieron a prestar apoyo a la EGIS Municipal en la elaboración del proyecto y el trabajo con los comités de vivienda a través del desarrollo de un Plan de Diseño Participativo -en adelante PDP, labor complementaria al realizado por esta.

El objetivos de este PDP es integrar a las familias que se encuentran postulando al subsidio habitacional en el proceso de diseño de la propuesta arquitectónica, recogiendo su opinión en temáticas relacionadas a la vivienda y al barrio a través de la ejecución de cuatro talleres de carácter teórico-práctico. Como síntesis de este proceso se generará una idea de diseño para la urbanización y las viviendas, considerando los aspectos relevantes obtenidos en las sesiones de trabajo, resultados que serán validados por los propios comités de vivienda. La metodología propuesta para este plan es la siguiente:

1. Recopilación antecedentes: contexto geográfico, histórico y demográfico de la ciudad de Porvenir; aspectos relevantes sobre el terreno de emplazamiento del proyecto; caracterización de los cinco comités de vivienda participantes del proceso.

2. Formulación de talleres teórico-prácticos: Se desarrollan basados en dos ejes temáticos- la vivienda y el barrio, contemplando una exposición digital y un espacio de discusión y reflexión.

3. Ejecución de los talleres y recopilación de resultados: Se recopilarán las ideas y conceptos relevantes en relación a la vivienda y el barrio obtenidos en cada sesión de trabajo, conversaciones y ejercicios gráficos realizados  con cada comité de vivienda.

4. Generación de una propuesta arquitectónica: Basándose en los resultados obtenidos en los talleres participativos y el estudio de otros proyectos de vivienda social de la región de Magallanes, se elaborará una propuesta para la urbanización y el diseño de las viviendas.

5. Validación de resultados: Reunión donde se expondrá la propuesta arquitectónica para recoger las impresiones y opiniones de cada uno de los comités de vivienda sobre ésta.

Como resultados de este proceso se logro realizar los 4 talleres con los 5 comités en donde se fue llegando a determinados conceptos que eran relevantes de manera transversal para todos los comités. Para el barrio los conceptos principales fueron la Seguridad, equipamientos públicos de calidad, áreas verdes y de recreación idealmente localizado en el centro de la urbanización con fácil accesibilidad para todos, lugares que fomenten las relaciones humanas, la imagen de barrio, cerramientos; para la vivienda los conceptos principales fueron la privacidad, imagen de la vivienda considerando el color, ventanas y la forma, espacio para la cocina y baños y áreas verdes en calles y veredas.

A partir de estos conceptos se desarrollaron tres propuestas para la urbanización que posteriormente los comités pudieron valida o criticar, estas propuestas no significan en ningún caso una solución definitiva, pero si un acercamiento a lo que las personas se imaginan para su barrio.

Para la vivienda se realizo una selección de viviendas sociales de la zona que se acercaran a los conceptos descritos por los comités, los que fueron expuestos en el taller de validación recogiendo las opiniones sobre cada modelo. A partir de estos modelos se propone desarrollar una propuesta para la vivienda de este proyecto.

En la actualidad el proyecto se encuentra en una etapa de desarrollo técnico y se ha considerado parte de los resultados obtenidos en este proceso, principalmente para la urbanización lo que da crédito a este tipo de prácticas que deberían ser cada vez más replicables.

Para mayor información o descarga del Informe final de este proceso en formato PDF contactarse con IDEA GLOBAL CHILE.



[1]El Programa Servicio País depende de la Fundación para la Superación de la Pobreza y tiene por objetivo intervenir prestando asesoría técnica a pequeños municipios u organizaciones civiles y fomentar el desarrollo de capacidades en diferentes áreas en personas en situación de pobreza.

 

(*) Arquitecto de la Universidad de Chile, Ex-Servicio País Rural Magallanes.


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